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05/07/2019

What are the difference between top middle and bottom distillates?

What are the difference between top middle and bottom distillates?

Top Product – The product which leaves the top of the column, also called distillate. This product is usually passed through a heat exchanger and liquefied. Bottom Product – The product which leaves through the bottom of the column.

What is distillate column?

The condensed liquid that is removed from the system is known as the distillate or top product. Thus, there are internal flows of vapour and liquid within the column as well as external flows of feeds and product streams, into and out of the column.

What is the difference between packed column and tray column?

Tray towers are better at handling solids or other sources of fouling. Tray towers are better at handling lower liquid rates. Packed towers are better for corrosive liquids. Packed towers are better at handling foaming systems.

What are the three sections in distillation column?

In general, the distillation column is separated into 3 sections: rectifying (or enriching) section, stripping (or exhausting) section and feed (or flashing) section.

What is the bottom of the distillation column called?

The liquid removed from the reboiler is known as the bottoms. Some of this liquid is recycled back to the top of the column and this is called the reflux. The condensed liquid that is removed from the system is known as the distillate or top product.

Which reflux ratio is most suitable?

The total cost, which is the sum of fixed cost and operating cost, must therefore passes through a minimum. The reflux ratio at this minimum total cost is the optimum (or economical) reflux ratio. Typically the optimum reflux ratio is approximately 1.2 to 1.5 times Rmin.

When should a tray column be used?

Trays are the favored choice in: Applications with liquid rates at 30 m3/m2-h or above. Applications involving solids. Applications where fouling is a concern.

What are the parts of distillation?

A simple distillation apparatus consists essentially of three parts: a flask equipped with a thermometer and with an outlet tube from which the vapor is emitted; a condenser that consists of two tubes of different diameters placed one within the other and so arranged that the smaller (in which the vapor is condensed) …

What are the two sections of distillation column?

There are two main categories of distillation columns, batch and continuous.

How are distillation columns used in the laboratory?

A distillation column is an essential item used in the distillation of liquid mixtures to separate the mixture into its component parts, or fractions, based on the differences in volatilities. Fractionating columns are used in small scale laboratory distillations as well as large scale industrial distillations. Types of Distillation Columns

How is the condenser cooled in a distillation column?

The vapor moves up the column, and as it exits the top of the unit, it is cooled by a condenser. The condensed liquid is stored in a holding vessel known as the reflux drum. Some of this liquid is recycled back to the top of the column and this is called the reflux.

Which is the internal flow of the distillate?

The condensed liquid that is removed from the system is known as the distillate or top product. Thus, there are internal flows of vapour and liquid within the column as well as external flows of feeds and product streams, into and out of the column.

How does a distillation column protect against overpressure?

A distillation column has a large input of heat at the reboiler and a large output at the condenser. If cooling at the condenser is lost, the column may suffer overpressure. It is necessary to protect against this by higher pressure design, relief valves or HIPS.