What is mitochondrial transcription?
Transcription in human mitochondria is driven by a DNA-dependant RNA polymerase called POLRMT, which is structurally similar to RNA polymerases in T3 and T7 bacteriophages [7,8]. TFAM is a DNA-binding protein, which, in addition to transcription activation, also packages DNA in the nucleoid .
What is mitochondrial DNA in simple terms?
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Does transcription happen in mitochondria?
Mitochondrial transcription is central to gene expression and is also intimately associated with replication and mitochondrial DNA maintenance. Mitochondrial gene expression is therefore subject to regulation in the nucleus, but local regulation also takes place in the mitochondria.
What is the function of mitochondrial DNA?
They play an important role in the regulation of cellular metabolism, apoptosis and oxydative stress control. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has many special features such as a high copy number in cell, maternal inheritance, and a high mutation rate which have made it attractive to scientists from many fields.
What is mitochondrial translation?
Mitochondrial translation is responsible for the maintenance of the cellular energetic balance through synthesis of proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation. This is required for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and the folding of the cristae.
What is mitochondrial RNA?
Mitochondrial RNAs are derived from precursor transcripts that traverse almost the entire heavy and light mtDNA strands. These precursor transcripts are subsequently processed into individual mRNAs that exhibit considerable variation in steady-state expression levels (Figure 2B,C; Table S2A; Figure S1D,E).
What is the difference between mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA?
The main difference between mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA is that mitochondrial DNA is encoded for the genetic information required by mitochondria whereas nuclear DNA is encoded for the genetic information required by the entire cell.
Is mitochondrial DNA from the mother?
Unlike nuclear DNA, which is passed down from both the mother and the father, mitochondrial DNA is inherited exclusively from the mother. This would indicate that the two systems are inherited independently, so that there should be no association between an individual’s nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA.
Does transcription occur in the chloroplast?
Chloroplast gene expression is primarily regulated at the post-transcriptional level, where a variety of complex mechanism have evolved to govern the interaction between the chloroplast and nuclear genomes.
How is mitochondrial DNA used in science?
Mitochondria are the organelles responsible for producing cellular energy in the form of ATP. This makes mtDNA useful in forensic science when DNA is damaged or degraded. …
What diseases are in mitochondria?
Mitochondrial dysfunction occurs when the mitochondria do not work as well as they should due to another disease or condition. Many conditions can lead to secondary mitochondrial dysfunction and affect other diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, muscular dystrophy, Lou Gehrig’s disease, diabetes and cancer.
What is the function of DNA in mitochondria?
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
What is the inheritance pattern of mitochondria?
The inheritance pattern of mitochondrial disease is lop-sided, always coming from the mother. Mitochondrial DNA is normally maternally inherited. Paternal inheritance is extremely rare and at best a tiny part of mitochondrial inheritance.
What are mitochondria genes?
A mitochondrion contains DNA, which is organized as several copies of a single, usually circular chromosome. This mitochondrial chromosome contains genes for redox proteins, such as those of the respiratory chain.