What is the role of TLR3?
TLR3 is a member of the toll-like receptor (TLR) family which plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. TLR3 recognizes double-stranded RNA, a form of genetic information carried by some viruses such as reoviruses.
What is TLR3?
TLR3 is a nucleotide-sensing TLR which is activated by double-stranded RNA, a sign of viral infection. Acts via the adapter TRIF/TICAM1, leading to NF-kappa-B activation, IRF3 nuclear translocation, cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response.
Where is TLR3 expressed?
TLR3 is expressed in various tissues and cells. In the human central nervous system, TLR3 is expressed constitutively in neurons, astrocytes, and microglia, suggesting a role in the response to viruses causing encephalopathy. In immune cells, only myeloid DCs and macrophages express TLR3.
Is TLR3 intracellular or extracellular?
TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, and probably TLR13 of mice are expressed intracellularly within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), endosomes, multivesicular bodies, and lysosomes.
What does TLR 5 do?
TLR5 is expressed on both immune and non-immune cells. TLR5 recognizes bacterial flagellin, a principal component of bacterial flagella and a virulence factor. The activation of this receptor mobilizes the nuclear factor NF-κB and stimulates tumor necrosis factor-alpha production.
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Where are TLRs located?
TLRs 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 are located primarily in the plasma membrane, where they interact with components of microbial pathogens that come into contact with the cell.
Where is TLR7 located in the cell?
This gene is predominantly expressed in lung, placenta, and spleen, and lies in close proximity to another family member, TLR8, on the human X chromosome. TLR7 recognizes single-stranded RNA in endosomes, which is a common feature of viral genomes which are internalised by macrophages and dendritic cells.
What kind of microbe can TLR5 detect?
Toll-Like Receptor 5 These cells can detect pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella typhimurium, and produce proinflammatory cytokines in a TLR5-dependent manner.
What does TLR5 recognize first?
TLR5 is known to specifically sense and recognize flagellin, the major structural protein of bacterial flagella. It is conceivable that the immune system is equipped with TLR5 for the detection of flagellin in different cells, tissues and organs.
Where is TLR3 found in the endosome?
TLR3 is localized to cell surfaces and endosomes in fibroblasts, macrophages, and some epithelial cell lines. 18 In contrast, myeloid DCs only express TLR3 intracellularly. 34 Immunofluoresence analysis has shown that endogenous TLR3 is localized to the early endosome, but not to late endosomes/lysosomes.
What is the function of the TLR3 receptor?
Function. TLR3 is a member of the toll-like receptor (TLR) family which plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. TLRs are highly conserved from Drosophila to humans and share structural and functional similarities. They recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns…
How does the endosomal Toll like receptor ( TLR ) work?
It has been shown that endosomal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize diverse danger signals and nucleic acid components released from uncoated virions, and activation of endosomal TLRs induces the production interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines to initiate inflammatory responses 2.
How does TLR3 work as a dsRNA sensor?
TLR3 has been functionally identified as a sensor of virus-derived dsRNA and its synthetic analog, polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid [poly (I:C)].17,18 Upon dsRNA recognition, TLR3 induces IFN-β and proinflammatory cytokine production from host cells via the adaptor protein, TICAM-1.