Are procyanidins and proanthocyanidins the same?

Are procyanidins and proanthocyanidins the same?

Procyanidins are proanthocyanidins built from flavan-3-ols (+)-catechin and (−)-epicatechin (Bittner et al. 2013). Proanthocyanidins are classified based on their monomeric unit linkages and are present in homo- and hetero-polymers. The most common proanthocyanidins are procyanidins (Figure 1).

What is Proanthocyanidin used for?

Proanthocyanidin is used in the treatment of varicose veins. Proanthocyanidin is a polyphenolic compound that is extracted from grape seeds. It is an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory and vasodilating properties.

Is mangosteen good for skin?

For the skin, the mangosteen has traditionally been used for a number of conditions, including eczema. Besides using xanthones to defend the skin, the fruit also promotes microcirculation which improves the appearance of skin vitality and radiance.

What is oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes?

Oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs) are compounds found in grape seed and pine bark extracts. They have been used to improve blood flow, reduce symptoms of diabetes, and to ease swelling in the joints. They can be taken by using either grape seed or pine bark.

Where can I find proanthocyanidins?

Food sources of proanthocyanidins include:

  • Red grapes.
  • Black grapes.
  • Grape seeds.
  • Red wine.
  • Bilberries.
  • Cranberries.
  • Strawberries.
  • Blueberries.

Are proanthocyanidins flavonoids?

Proanthocyanidins are in a group of compounds called polyphenols. These belong to a subclass called flavonoids.

Where are proanthocyanidins found?

Proanthocyanidins are present in fresh grapes, juice, red wine, and other darkly pigmented fruits such as cranberry, blackcurrant, elderberry, and aronia.

What are the health benefits of mangosteen pericarp?

The two most salient features of this fruit are that it is both hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory. These two health benefits are perfect for people who suffer from metabolic disorders, inflammatory disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. They’re also very powerful preventives.

What kind of pharmacologic properties does mangosteen have?

Xanthones from the pericarp, whole fruit, heartwood and leaf of mangosteen are known to possess a wide spectrum of pharmacologic properties, including antioxidant, anti-tumor, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities.

Are there xanthones in the mangosteen fruit?

Mangosteens have been the focus of many anticancer studies, and results have been very positive to date support their standing as cancer-fighting foods. The mangosteen fruit itself is said to contain at least 20 known xanthones, and the majority of those are found in the fruit wall or pericarp.

What kind of skin cancer can mangosteen fight?

Skin cancers are often resistant to conventional chemotherapy, but mangosteen has shown ability to naturally fight cancers of the skin. One study published in Food and Chemical Toxicology examined the anti-skin cancer properties of crude ethanol extract of mangosteen pericarp on human squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma.