What does Nur77 do?

What does Nur77 do?

Nur77 is an immediate–early response gene expressed in T cells within hours after T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation (11). It is also well-known for its role in thymic negative selection, where induction of Nur77 results in apoptosis of immature thymocytes (12, 13).

What is NR4A1?

Nuclear receptor 4A1 (NR4A1) is a member of the NR4A nuclear receptor family of intracellular transcription factors. NR4A1 is involved in cell cycle mediation, inflammation and apoptosis. Nuclear receptor 4A1 plays a key role in mediating inflammatory responses in macrophages.

Why are nuclear receptors important?

Nuclear receptors have the ability to directly bind to DNA and regulate the expression of adjacent genes; hence these receptors are classified as transcription factors. As a consequence, nuclear receptors play key roles in both embryonic development and adult homeostasis.

What receptors are in the nucleus?

There are two classes of nuclear receptor (see Table 18.2). Steroid (estrogen, glucocorticoids) receptors located in the cell cytoplasm are translocated into the nucleus following binding with their steroid partner or located within the nucleus [1].

How do nuclear receptors regulate gene expression?

Nuclear receptors regulate transcription by binding to specific DNA sequences in target genes known as hormone response elements or HREs. These elements are located in regulatory sequences normally present in the 5′-flanking region of the target gene.

Are nuclear receptors in the nucleus?

A class II nuclear receptor (NR), regardless of ligand-binding status, is located in the nucleus bound to DNA.

How many types of nuclear receptors are there?

We now know that 48 nuclear receptors are encoded in the human genome (Mangelsdorf et al. 1995). In many cases, ligands for these have been identified, but several “orphan receptors” remain (Burris et al. 2012).

How does a nuclear hormone receptor affect changes in gene expression?

Nuclear hormone receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate gene expression by interacting with specific DNA sequences upstream of their target genes.

Where are nuclear receptors located?

A class II nuclear receptor (NR), regardless of ligand-binding status, is located in the nucleus bound to DNA.

What receptors are found in the nucleus?

Steroid hormone receptors are found in the nucleus, cytosol, and also on the plasma membrane of target cells. They are generally intracellular receptors (typically cytoplasmic or nuclear) and initiate signal transduction for steroid hormones which lead to changes in gene expression over a time period of hours to days.

What are the types of nuclear receptors?

According to this classification, nuclear receptors are grouped in seven subfamilies: NR1, NR2, NR3, NR4, NR5, NR6, and NR0. An interesting fact: this classification matches the DNA-binding characteristics of the members of each subfamily, but not their ligand binding characteristics.

What is the role of Nur77 in thymocytes?

Nur77 is an immediate early gene whose expression is rapidly upregulated by TCR signaling in murine T cells and human thymocytes. Nur77-GFP transgenes serve as specific TCR and BCR signaling reporters in murine transgenic models.

Which is more specific CD69 or Nur77?

We demonstrate that endogenous Nur77 is a more specific reporter of Ag-specific signaling events than the commonly used CD69 activation marker in both human T and B cells. This is reflective of the disparity in signaling pathways that regulate the expression of Nur77 and CD69.

How are Nur77 protein levels measured in PBMCs?

Nur77 protein amounts were assessed by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry in T and B cells isolated from human PBMCs obtained from healthy donors that had been stimulated by their respective Ag receptors.