What is Cho glucose?
Fed-batch Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture is the most commonly used process for IgG production in the biopharmaceutical industry. Our results indicate that the balance of glucose and amino acid concentration in the culture is important for cell growth, IgG titer and N-glycosylation.
What are CHO cells?
CHO cells are the most common mammalian cell line used for mass production of therapeutic proteins. They can produce recombinant protein on the scale of 3-10 grams per liter of culture.
How is lactate produced in cell culture?
Typically lactate is strongly produced during the exponential growth phase, while its net consumption is frequently observed when cells enter into the stationary phase. Such a metabolic shift is desirable because it seems to favor optimal process performance.
Is Cho a glucose?
Through glycolysis, CHO cells consume glucose as the main carbon source for energy production and generate lactate as the most common metabolic by-product.
What molecule is Cho?
Carbohydrates and lipids are made of only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (CHO). Proteins are made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen (CHON). Nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus (CHON P).
What media is used for CHO cells?
CHO cells should be cultured in Ham’s F12K (ATCC suggestion) or DMEM modified with 10% FBS. If cells are not doubling every 14-17 hours, supplement the medium with 1-2% FCS. Subculture Protocol for CHO: CHO cells grow quickly and easily and cell count should have a doubled within 14-17 hours.
Why are CHO cells used in industry?
The Advantages of CHO Cells Grow well in suspension and as adherent culture, rendering the cells ideal for GMP procedures. Their tolerance to variations in pH, oxygen levels, temperature or pressure make them the ideal cell for large-scale culture. High recombinant protein yields and specific productivity.
Why do cells produce lactate?
Back in the 1920s, it was discovered that cancer cells prefer not to rely on the citric acid cycle like healthy cells do. Instead, they turn most of their pyruvate into lactate, which they then release. And because cancer cells consume so much glucose, they end up producing a lot of lactate.
What is the fate of lactate in mammalian cells?
In each case the ultimate fate of the lactate is oxidation to ATP, CO2, and H2O by aerobic metabolism. Lactate circulating in the bloodstream can also be transported to the liver, where it is reconverted by the processes of gluconeogenesis/glyconeogenesis into glucose or glycogen, respectively.
What is the role of glucose in cell culture?
Glucose provides the reducing power needed to neutralize oxidative species (oxidative stress) that form in vivo and in vitro.
Why glucose is used in cell culture?
Able to cross the plasma membrane through facilitated diffusion and transport proteins, glucose is the primary fuel source in cell culture. The energy contained in its chemical bonds is used to synthesize adenosine triphosphate (ATP) both in interconnected and independent ways.
What is Cho in compound?
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Chemically, an aldehyde /ˈældɪhaɪd/ is a compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to any generic alkyl or side chain R group.
How are amino acids and glucose metabolism in CHO cell culture?
Amino acid and glucose metabolism in fed-batch CHO cell culture affects antibody production and glycosylation Fed-batch Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture is the most commonly used process for IgG production in the biopharmaceutical industry.
What are the processes involved in glucose metabolism?
Glucose metabolism involves multiple processes, including glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and glycogenolysis, and glycogenesis. Glycolysis in the liver is a process that involves various enzymes that encourage glucose catabolism in cells.
Where does the NADH produced in glucose metabolism go?
The NADH that is produced in this process will be used later to produce ATP in the mitochondria. Importantly, by the end of this process, one glucose molecule generates two pyruvate molecules, two high-energy ATP molecules, and two electron-carrying NADH molecules.
Which is part of the cycle of carbohydrate metabolism?
Carbohydrate metabolism involves glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain. Gluconeogenesis is the synthesis of new glucose molecules from pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, or the amino acids alanine or glutamine.