# What is external disturbance torque?

## What is external disturbance torque?

(3.23), disturbance torque τdis only consists of frictional components if the rotational velocity is constant as well as the interactive torque τint, and external torques τext are zero. External torques τext can be made zero by disconnecting the external loads.

What external forces can give rise to disturbance torques in satellites?

Solar radiation, gravitational gradients, and meteorite impacts are all examples of external forces which can give rise to disturbance torques. Motor-bearing friction and the movement of satellite elements such as the antennas also can give rise to disturbance torques.

### What is gravity gradient torque?

The gravity gradient torque is the main perturbation of the attitude motion. The oblateness of the Earth makes a contribution to the gravity gradient torque, which is approximately 5 orders of magnitude less than the main term on the geosynchronous orbit (Kumar, 2008).

What is a disturbance torque?

During the lifetime of an Earth-bound satellite, its attitude (the direction it is pointed towards) gets continually disturbed by different forces, called disturbance torques. These torques have to be mitigated by the ADCS, to make sure the satellite is always pointed in the right direction.

## What is the primary cause of signal loss in satellite communications?

Free space loss is the primary cause of signal loss in satellite communications.

What is gravitational potential gradient?

The gravitational potential gradient is defined as the rate of change of gravitational potential with distance in the field. This is equal to the gravitational field intensity (g = EG) at that point. Put simply it is the rate at which the field changes as the distance from the mass producing the field changes.

### What is gravity gradient control system?

Gravity-gradient stabilization (a.k.a. “tidal stabilization”) is a method of stabilizing artificial satellites or space tethers in a fixed orientation using only the orbited body’s mass distribution and gravitational field.

What are the losses in satellite communication?

The losses can be categorized into 2 types.

• Constant losses.
• Variable losses.

## What is the main reason for signal strength loss in radiated transmission?

Diffraction: radio signal path loss due diffraction occurs when an object appears in the path. The signal can diffract around the object, but losses occur. The loss is higher the more rounded the object. Radio signals tend to diffract better around sharp edges, i.e. edges that are sharp with respect to the wavelength.

What is the meaning of potential gradient?

: the vector that represents the rate at which a potential changes with position in a specified direction specifically : the rate of change with height of the atmospheric electric potential.

### What is potential gradient explain?

In physics, chemistry and biology, a potential gradient is the local rate of change of the potential with respect to displacement, i.e. spatial derivative, or gradient. This quantity frequently occurs in equations of physical processes because it leads to some form of flux.

How can the gravity gradient be used to stabilize a spacecraft?

## How is disturbance torque ( TD2 ) applied to a motor?

A disturbance load torque (Td2) applied to a motor is estimated by a disturbance estimation observer (5), and feedback control is made by feeding back this estimated disturbance load torque so that the torque coincides with a force commande value (Fc) as a target value.

How are spring torques related to mechanical disturbance?

Friction arises from surface interactions between and within the rotating bearings of the gimbals, environmental and electromagnetic interference seals, and brush contact in brush-type motors. Spring torques are due to flexure, compression, or stretching of electrical cables between the payload and the host vehicle produce disturbances.

### How are disturbance torques defined on a spacecraft?

As emphasized in the introduction, the disturbance torques are first physically defined in vector or vector-dyadic form with matrix elements, then they are transformed into the elements in the body coordinate of the spacecraft. This is a very common practice because the sensors and actuators are mounted on that body frame.

Is the disturbance torque of a DOF system zero?

According to Eq. (3.23), disturbance torque τdis only consists of frictional components if the rotational velocity θ. is constant as well as the interactive torque τint, and external torques τext are zero. Interactive torque τint is zero for a single DOF system. External torques τext can be made zero by disconnecting the external loads.

03/07/2020