What is the pathophysiology of HHNS?

What is the pathophysiology of HHNS?

Pathophysiology. Elevated levels of counterregulatory hormones (glucagon, catecholamines, cortisol, and growth hormone) initiate HHS by stimulating hepatic glucose production through glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, leading to hyperglycemia, intracellular water depletion, and subsequent osmotic diuresis.

What are the differences between HHNS and DKA?

DKA typically evolves within a few hours, whereas HHNS is much slower and occurs over days to weeks, according to 2021 research . The two conditions look similar because of the hyperglycemia component of each condition. Knowing the symptoms of each can help you seek medical care as soon as possible.

Can hyperglycemia cause thrombosis?

Background: Patients with (undiagnosed) diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance or stress-induced hyperglycemia may be at greater risk for venous thrombosis and present with relative hyperglycemia during the thrombotic event.

What is the mechanism of HHS?

HHS. The basic underlying mechanism of HHS is a relative reduction in effective circulating insulin with a concomitant rise in counterregulatory hormones. Unlike patients with DKA, most patients with HHS do not develop significant ketoacidosis.

What causes hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome?

Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS) is a potentially deadly condition that can develop as a result of infection or illness in people with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes or when diabetes medications aren’t taken as directed. Some also refer to this as a “diabetic coma.”

What is HHS and DKA?

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) are the two most serious metabolic complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). These disorders can occur in both type 1 and type 2 DM. DKA is characterized by hyperglycemia, ketone body formation and metabolic acidosis.

What does DKA HHNS stand for?

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Syndrome (HHNS), also known as Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic State (HHS) is a dangerous condition resulting from very high blood glucose levels. HHNS can affect both types of diabetics, yet it usually occurs amongst people with type 2 diabetes.

Does high sugar cause blood clots?

The American Heart Association states, “Diabetes increase the risk of plaque buildup in the arteries, which can cause dangerous blood clots.” Studies also link that hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) with abnormalities of coagulation, leading to a tendency to form blood clots.

Are blood clots common in diabetics?

Background on blood clots and diabetes Diabetes increases the risk of blood clots, and up to four in five people with diabetes are at risk of dying from a clot-related cause, according to the American Heart Association.

What does the word honk mean?

1 : to make the characteristic cry of a goose. 2 : to make a sound resembling the cry of a goose. transitive verb. : to cause to honk honk a horn.

What is the difference between honk and HHS?

HHS is a potentially life-threatening emergency It does not usually lead to the presence of ketones in the urine, as occurs in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), which is why it was previously referred to as HONK (hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma).

What is hhnk medical diagnosis?

HHNKC is an emergency that requires immediate medical care. The condition may be diagnosed via blood glucose test or via testing the body’s water balance and electrolyte levels, like in a serum osmolality test.

What is hhnk medical?

1. characterized by or causing hyperglycemia. 2. an agent that has this effect. hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic (HHNK) coma a metabolic derangement in which there is an abnormally high serum glucose level without ketoacidosis.

What is hhnk diabetes?

Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic coma (HHNKC) is an extremely serious complication of type 2 diabetes, most often occurring in those who are non-insulin dependent. It is also known as diabetic coma.

What is diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome?

Hyperosmolar syndrome or diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome is a medical emergency caused by a very high blood glucose level . The prefix “hyper” means high, and ” osmolarity ” is a measure of the concentration of active particles in a solution, so the name of the syndrome simply refers to the high concentration of glucose in the blood.