# Which algorithm is used in hill climbing?

## Which algorithm is used in hill climbing?

In numerical analysis, hill climbing is a mathematical optimization technique which belongs to the family of local search. It is an iterative algorithm that starts with an arbitrary solution to a problem, then attempts to find a better solution by making an incremental change to the solution.

### How do you write a hill climbing algorithm?

Algorithm for Simple Hill Climbing:

- Step 1: Evaluate the initial state, if it is goal state then return success and Stop.
- Step 2: Loop Until a solution is found or there is no new operator left to apply.
- Step 3: Select and apply an operator to the current state.
- Step 4: Check new state:
- Step 5: Exit.

#### What is local maximum plateau and ridge?

Plateua/flat local maximum : It is a flat region of state space where neighboring states have the same value. Ridge : It is region which is higher than its neighbours but itself has a slope. It is a special kind of local maximum.

**What are the main demerits of hill climbing?**

Disadvantages of Hill Climbing It is not an efficient method. It is not suited to problems where the value of the heuristic function drops off suddenly when the solution may be in sight.

**Is hill climbing a greedy algorithm?**

Features of a hill climbing algorithm It employs a greedy approach: This means that it moves in a direction in which the cost function is optimized. The greedy approach enables the algorithm to establish local maxima or minima.

## What is AO * algorithm?

AO* Algorithm basically based on problem decompositon (Breakdown problem into small pieces) When a problem can be divided into a set of sub problems, where each sub problem can be solved separately and a combination of these will be a solution, AND-OR graphs or AND – OR trees are used for representing the solution.

### Is Hill climbing a greedy algorithm?

#### What is plateau in local search?

Plateau – a state such that the objective function is constant in an area around it. Shoulder – a plateau that has an uphill edge.

**What is a local maxima?**

A local maximum point on a function is a point (x,y) on the graph of the function whose y coordinate is larger than all other y coordinates on the graph at points “close to” (x,y).

**What are the advantages of hill climbing?**

Advantage of Hill Climbing Algorithm in Artificial Intelligence

- Hill Climbing is very useful in routing-related problems like Travelling Salesmen Problem, Job Scheduling, Chip Designing, and Portfolio Management.
- It is good in solving the optimization problem while using only limited computation power.

## Is hill climbing complete?

Hill climbing is neither complete nor optimal, has a time complexity of O(∞) but a space complexity of O(b). No special implementation data structure since hill climbing discards old nodes.

### Why is hill climbing based on a heuristic?

Ridge – local optimum that is caused by inability to apply 2 operators at once. Heuristic Dependence Hill climbing is based on the value assigned to states by the heuristic function. The heuristic used by a hill climbing algorithm does not need to be a static function of a single state.

#### How is global information encoded in hill climbing?

• Global information might be encoded in heuristic functions. 24. 24 Hill Climbing: Disadvantages B C D A B C Start Goal Blocks World A D Global heuristic: For each block that has the correct support structure: +1 to every block in the support structure.

**What are the drawbacks of hill climbing?**

Drawbacks of hill climbing Local Maxima: peaks that aren’t the highest point in the space Plateaus: the space has a broad flat region that gives the search algorithm no direction (random walk) Ridges: dropoffs to the sides; steps to the North, East, South and West may go down, but a step to the NW may go up.

**Why is 27.27 annealing used in hill climbing?**

27. 27 Simulated Annealing • A variation of hill climbing in which, at the beginning of the process, some downhill moves may be made. • To do enough exploration of the whole space early on, so that the final solution is relatively insensitive to the starting state. • Lowering the chances of getting caught at a local maximum, or plateau, or a ridge.